1. WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT OF PRADHAN MANTRI KRISHI SINCHAI YOJANA (WDC-PMKSY)
The Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development has been implementing an area development programme i.e. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) w.e.f. 26.02.2009 principally for development of rainfed portions of net cultivated area and culturable wastelands. The activities undertaken inter alia include ridge area treatment, drainage line treatment, soil and moisture conservation, rain water harvesting, nursery raising, afforestation, horticulture, pasture development, livelihoods for asset-less persons, etc.
Subsequent to approval of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY),IWMP was subsumed as one of its components. The Operational Guidelines of PMKSY wereapproved on 26.10.2015 as per which IWMP is implemented as Watershed Development Component of PMKSY (WDC-PMKSY).
2. The main features of WDC-PMKSY are as below:
(i) As per the Common Guidelines for Watershed Development Projects-2008 (Revised Edition-2011), the period for completing PMKSY (Watershed Development) projects is between 4-7 years. The activities to be taken up are distributed over three phases. The Preparatory Phase (1 to 2 years) involves preparation of DPR, Entry Point Activities and Institution & Capacity Building. The Watershed Works Phase (2 to 3 years) involves the Watershed Development Works, Livelihood Activities for the asset-less persons and Production System & Micro Enterprises. The Consolidation and Withdrawal Phase (1 to 2 years) involves consolidation and completion of various works.
(ii) The cost norm for IWMP is Rs. 15,000/- per ha for hilly & difficult area, Rs. 12,000/- per ha for other areas and upto Rs. 15,000 per ha for IWMP projects in Integrated Action Plan (IAP) Districts. While the funding pattern between Centre and States in the erstwhile IWMP was 90:10, the funding pattern under Watershed Development Component of PMKSY is 60:40.However, for North-Eastern States and Hill States (J&K, H.P & Uttarakhand) the funding pattern between Centre and the States continues to be 90:10. The projects under IWMP undertake a cluster of micro-watersheds of area about 5000 ha in rainfed/ degraded areas having no assured irrigation. Dedicated institutions are also provided at Centre, State and District levels. The programme lays emphasis on meticulous planning and capacity building, by providing a special provision of 1 % for preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) and 5 % for Institution and Capacity Building.
(iii) Institutional set up for implementation of IWMP
(a) Ministry Level: The Department of Land Resources has the necessary institutional mechanism in the form of Steering Committee chaired by the Secretary, DoLR for effective and professional management of watershed projects. This Committee inter alia appraises and clears the project proposals of the States. The Steering Committee consists of members from Department of Land Resources, the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog, Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Drinking Water Supply, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, National Rural Livelihoods Mission, (Ministry of Rural Development), Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Department of Agricultural Research & Education, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, Central Ground Water Board, Indira Gandhi National open University (IGNOU), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), organizations in Space Technology (NRSA,ISRO,FSI), three organizations in the field of watershed management (ICRISAT, CRIDA, MANAGE etc.), National Informatics Centre (NIC) , representative from NRAA as a Special Invitee for policy matters, three to five experts in the field of watershed management and three reputed NGOs.
(b) State Level: A State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA) has been constituted with professional support. The SLNA is the dedicated institution for the implementation of IWMP in the State.
(c) District Level: Watershed Cell-cum-Data Centre (WCDC) is the District level institution to supervise and coordinate IWMP projects in the District. WCDC is set up in DRDA/ Zilla Parishad/ District Level Implementing Agency/Department in all programme districts as per the convenience of the State Governments.
(d) Project Level: Project implementation is supervised by the Project Implementing Agency (PIA). As per the Common Guidelines for Watershed Projects, 2008 (Revised 2011), Panchayats, Government and Non-Government agencies may function as PIAs. Each PIA is to have a Watershed Development Team (WDT) comprising of 3 to 4 technical experts.
(e) Village Level: Watershed Committee (WC) is constituted by the Gram Sabha for implementation of the project at field level. It comprises of at least 10 members, half of which are representatives of SHGs and User Groups (UGs), SC/STs, women and landless. One member from WDT is also represented in WC.
3. New Initiatives
DoLR has taken a number of new initiatives to revamp implementation of watershed programme as detailed below:
(i) Srishti & Drishti ‘Bhuvan Portal’ developed by ISRO/NRSC has been launched on 19.02.2015 by Hon’ble Minister of Rural Development for planning and monitoring of projects.
(a) Srishti is a GIS based Geo-portal developed to assist in monitoring, evaluation, change assessment and provide inputs in planning for watershed management and preparation of Detailed Project Reports (DPR).
(b) Drishti is the Mobile Application tool to capture data including visuals from the field for real time monitoring of IWMP projects. The tool can also be used for community monitoring of IWMP works.
(ii) The Department is implementing the Public Finance Management System (PFMS) developed by the Office of Controller General of Accounts in IWMP. The system is being used to make payments, execute expenditure filing and track expenditure of funds in near real time during implementation of IWMP.
(iii) A convergence matrix in consultation with other Ministries and States has been developed. The matrix lists the various Ministries/Departments, agencies/institutions and lays down responsibilities within the IWMP implementing institutions to strive for convergence at the field level. The Convergence Matrix would be a mandatory part of DPR.
(iv) Department of Land Resources has taken a new initiative for Concurrent Monitoring and Evaluation of the IWMP projects. In this regard many of the States have already selected the independent Evaluation Agencies. The Department has also appointed three agencies for third party Monitoring and Evaluation of the Watershed Development Component of PMKSY for the North, West and North East regions. The process of selection of agencies for the South and East regions is under process.
The principal emphasis is on qualitative and timely execution of the watershed development projects, with
one: optimal utilisation of available budgetary support,
two: convergence with relevant Central and State schemes and
three: prioritization of projects / project activities.
Chief Secretaries of all States (except Goa) have been accordingly requested on 02.02.2017. Keeping in view that successful implementation of projects inter alia requires concerted efforts towards convergence of schemes and programmes of not only of Central Government Ministries but also of State Government Departments as may fit into the schematic design and overall requirements and objectives of watershed development, action has specifically been initiated to prepare apt convergence matrix inclusive of both Central and State schemes in the projects.
To optimize the resources action has been initiated for signing an MoU with the three Departments in Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, namely (i) Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, (ii) Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries and (iii) Department of Agricultural Research and Education.
Action has also been taken to undertake Natural Resources Management activities by utilizing the labour component of MGNREGS and to undertake some of the Entry Point Activities in convergence with Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).